AAPB Commemorates the Legacy of Martin Luther King Jr. Through Public Media

Martin Luther King Jr. (MLK) Day is an annual holiday observed on the third Monday of January to commemorate the birthday of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Dr. King was a chief spokesperson for nonviolent activism during the Civil Rights Movement until his assassination in 1968. The campaign for a federal holiday in King’s honor began soon after his death; however, President Ronald Reagan officially signed the holiday into law in 1983, and it was first observed three years later.

As MLK Day aims to celebrate the life and achievements of Dr. King, below is a selection of public radio and television programs that document King’s legacy, including his legendary speeches and influence on society.

1963

  • Context – The 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom featured an estimated 250,000 peaceful demonstrators walking from the Washington Monument to the Lincoln Memorial to hear a political call to arms for economic equality and civil rights for African Americans. Credited with being the final impetus to the passing of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, the event famously ended with Martin Luther King Jr.’s historic “I Have a Dream” speech – recording below.
03128v.jpg
Leffler, Warren K, photographer. Civil rights march on Washington, D.C. / WKL. Photograph. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <www.loc.gov/item/2003654393/>.

Series: March on Washington Coverage by Educational Radio Network

Program: I Have a Dream Speech: Martin Luther King, Jr.

Contributing Organization: WGBH (Boston, Massachusetts)

Description: Part 17 of 17, this program includes the Educational Radio Network’s (ERN) coverage of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, including Martin Luther King Jr.’s introduction and speech ““I Have a Dream”.

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_15-9xp6v356

1964

June

Series: Long, Hot Summer ’64

Producing Organization: Educational Radio Network

Contributing Organization: WGBH (Boston, Massachusetts)

Description: The Long, Hot Summer ’64 series was a weekly news report documenting the civil rights movement during the summer of 1964. This episode describes the arrest of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. and 14 others on June 11, 1964, when they attempted to eat at the segregated Monson Motel. Reporters include Dr. Robert Hayling, the head of the movement in St. Augustine and two chaplains from Boston University, Bill England and Eugene Dawson, describe beatings during demonstrations that day and during the previous two evenings.

Direct Links:

Episode 1: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_15-50tqk2fw

Episode 2: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_15-02c86fs0

– – –

Episode: Violence

Series: Firing Line with William F. Buckley Jr.

Contribution Organization: Hoover Institution Library & Archives, Stanford University (Stanford, California)

“After the killing of Dr. King and after the killing of Robert Kennedy many, many people … gave their opinions, and I would like to tell you first that everybody seems to know where violence comes from – they know where the riots come from, where the wars come from, where murder comes from. I’m the only one who doesn’t know, so I’m considered an expert – at least I know one should find it out.” – Dr. Wertham, Discussant

Description: Following the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King and Bobby Kennedy, Dr. Wertham, a practicing psychiatrist and longtime clinical student of violence, discussed how he cuts through the rhetorical excesses of the time. The television series Firing Line with William F. Buckley Jr. was a venue for debate and discussion on political, social, and philosophical issues with experts of the day.

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_514-hm52f7kn3h

– – –

July

  • The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is passed — a landmark civil rights and U.S. labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. It prohibits unequal application of voter registration requirements, racial segregation in schools, employment, and public accommodations.
Lyndon_Johnson_signing_Civil_Rights_Act,_July_2,_1964.jpg
President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the 1964 Civil Rights Act as Martin Luther King, Jr. looks on. Photo Source

– – –

October

  • Dr. King won the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolent resistance. Below is a recording of the reception.

Episode: Reception for MLK’s Nobel Prize

Contributing Organization: WNYC (New York, New York)

“[I] can think of no one that has done more to give true meaning to that precious word called ‘peace.'” – Hubert Humphrey speaking of Dr. King.

Description: In celebration of Dr. King’s 1964 Nobel Peace Prize, WNYC recorded the evening’s events including speeches made by Hubert Humphry, New York Mayor Robert F. Wagner Jr., and Dr. King.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_80-4302vwz6

1967

Title: Martin Luther King, Jr. Speaks Against the Vietnam War

Contributing Organization: WYSO (Yellow Springs, Ohio)

Description: In 1967, Martin Luther King, Jr. was President of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and spoke against the Vietnam War. This program was produced by the SCLC as part of their “Martin Luther King Speaks” weekly series. The program is about lobbying efforts against proposed welfare legislation that brought together the National Welfare Rights Organization, the Peoples Coalition for Peace and Justice, and the Southern Christian Leadership. Conference. It includes short excerpts of King speaking at the beginning and end of the program.

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_27-pr7mp4w42p

1968

April

  • Context – Martin Luther King Jr. was shot at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4, 1968. Following MLK’s assassination, performer James Brown was to play a concert in Boston. In an effort to prevent rioting, the Mayor was advised to ask local station WGBH to broadcast the concert. Below is the beginning address of the historic concert.
Screen Shot 2019-01-20 at 9.03.29 PM.png
James Brown shakes hands with Boston Mayor Kevin White.

Title: James Brown and Mayor Kevin White Address the Crowd at the Boston Garden

Contributing Organization: WGBH (Boston, Massachusetts)

Description: Following Martin Luther King Jr.’s assassination, James Brown was to play in Boston and is credited with preventing riots by agreeing to broadcast his concert on WGBH. This short excerpt from the 1968 concert features Councilor Tom Atkins and James Brown as they introduce Mayor Kevin White onto the stage at the Boston Garden. White addresses the crowd, urging they respect the legacy of Martin Luther King, Jr. Brown salutes Mayor White and sings “That’s Life.”

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_15-qz22b8vs2h

– – –

  • Context – The Civil Rights Act of 1968, also known as the Fair Housing Act, is a landmark part of legislation that provided for equal housing opportunities regardless of race, religion, or national origin. The Act was signed into law during the King assassination riots by President Lyndon B. Johnson, who had previously signed the Civil Rights Act 1964 and Voting Rights Act 1965 into law.

Program: Civil Rights: What Next?

Producing Organization: National Educational Television and Radio Center

Contributing Organizations: Library of Congress (Washington, District of Columbia)

Description: This hour-long interconnected public affairs special emanated live from New York City and Washington, D.C., on Thursday, April 11, 1968 at 9 p.m. EST, the day President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights of 1968. The panel studied the meaning of the newly passed Civil Rights Bill in the aftermath of national mourning for Dr. Martin Luther King. Paul Niven moderated the discussion with James Forman, director of international affairs for the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC); Hosea Williams, national director of political education for the Southern Christian Leadership Conference; and Floyd McKissick, executive director of the Congress of Racial Equality (Core). In Washington were John Field, director of community relations of the U.S. Conference of Mayors; James J. Kilpatrick, nationally syndicated columnist and former editor of the Richmond, Va. News leader; and Congressman Charles Mathias, Jr. (R-MD).

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_15-741rq0bx

– – –

June

Title: Premier Episode of the Black Journal Series

Screen Shot 2019-01-21 at 9.43.26 AM.png
Coretta Scott King, WNET

Contributing Organizations: Thirteen WNET (New York, New York) and Library of Congress (Washington, District of Columbia)

Description: This episode served as the premiere episode of National Educational Television’s monthly magazine, Black Journal, the first of a series devoted to the interests and concerns of Black America. This segment includes a satire by Godfrey Cambridge, an address by Coretta Scott King, a report on the Poor People’s Campaign, and a study of the African American political reaction to Robert Kennedy’s assassination.

Full program at http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_62-5m6251fv96.

1977

Program: Nine years later: a Black panel on racism and civil rights since the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. (Part 1 of 2)

Contributing Organization: Pacifica Radio Archives (North Hollywood, California)

Producing Organization: KPFA (Radio station: Berkeley, Calif.)

Description: This program contains a panel discussion covering topics such as the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., his impact upon the Civil Rights movement, South Africa, the Vietnam War and the Black community, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, Affirmative Action programs, the Bakke decision, capitalism, socialism, U.S. police forces, economics in the Black community, President Carter, racism at the University of California, the firing of Dr. Harry Edwards, and the future of struggle in the United States. Yvonne Golden moderates the panel. Panel members in this first hour include JoNina Abron, Gloria Davis, Dr. Harry Edwards, Enola Maxwell, and Joel Mitchell.

Direct Links –

Part 1: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_28-xg9f47hd10

Part 2: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_28-bc3st7f50p

1983

  • President Ronald Ragan officially signs Martin Luther King Day into law as a federal holiday.

1982

Screen Shot 2019-01-20 at 8.35.47 PM.png

Episode: Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Birthday Commemoration

Contributing Organization: Rocky Mountain PBS (Denver, Colorado)

Description: Prime Time is a weekly program about Denver Public Schools hosted by Ed Sardella. This episode visited Garden Place Elementary School, Hallett Academy, and Manual High School, where students focused on the life and achievements of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_52-580k6kxc

1985

Title: Long Black Song [Part 1 of 2]

Contributing Organization: Louisiana Public Broadcasting (Baton Rouge, Louisiana)

Description: This episode of the series North Star from 1985 focuses on the history of African Americans from the 1860s to the 1960s through the periods of Reconstruction, Segregation and the Civil Rights Movement. It features Dr. Valerian Smith performing excerpts from his musical composition “Tribulations,” a tribute to Martin Luther King, Jr. The host includes Genevieve Stewart, who goes into detail about specific aspects of African American history each episode.

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_17-29b5ndnr

1985

Screen Shot 2019-01-20 at 8.38.28 PM.png
John Lewis’ transcript is searchable and accessible on AAPB’s site!

Title: Interview with John Lewis

Series: Eyes on the Prize

Producing Organization: Blackside, Inc.

Contributing Organization: Film and Media Archive, Washington University in St. Louis (St. Louis, Missouri)

Description: Interview with John Lewis conducted for Eyes on the Prize. Discussion centers on the voting rights movement in Selma, Alabama, his friendship with Martin Luther King, Jr., the relationship between SCLC and SNCC, his view on the philosophy of nonviolence, and his involvement in the March on Washington.

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_151-cz3222s11s#at_674_s

1986

Episode: Rev. Michael Haynes

Series: From the Source

Contributing Organization: WUMB (Boston, Massachusetts)

Description: This episode of From the Source features guest Rev. Dr. Michael Haynes, a contemporary and colleague of Martin Luther King, Jr. and former MA state representative. During the interview, Haynes reflected on the newly-implemented Martin Luther King Day holiday and addressed caller questions about how young people could further King’s dream of racial equality. He also discussed the need to keep the pressure on political leaders regarding civil rights, King’s intellectual prowess, King’s sense of the hypocrisy of the institutional Christian Church in America, King’s 1965 address to the MA Legislature, and the religious foundations of King’s belief in the necessity of non-violence to achieve his goals.

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_345-171vhk97

1988

Contributing Organization: NewsHour Productions (Washington, District of Columbia)

Description: This episode of NewsHour Productions features a segment on the 20 years following the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_507-804xg9ft7m

1989

Title: Commemorative Program for Martin Luther King, Jr. (1989)

Contributing Organization: WYSO (Yellow Springs, Ohio)

Description: This program was produced in 1989 to commemorate Martin Luther King, Jr. for the national holiday in his honor. It featured an excerpt from the commencement speech he gave at Antioch College in Yellow Springs.

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_27-cf9j38kv54

2002

Screen Shot 2019-01-20 at 6.48.41 PM.pngProgram: Martin Luther King Convocation

Series: First Friday

Contributing Organization: Mississippi Public Broadcasting(Jackson, Mississippi)

Description: This episode of First Friday features highlights from Jackson State University’s 33rd Annual Martin Luther King Birthday Convocation. The goal of the ceremony is to celebrate and remember the contributions Dr. King made for nonviolent social change in America.

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_60-77fqzfgz

2005

Program: The Contested Legacy of Martin Luther King, JR.

Contributing Organization: Hoover Institution Library & Archives, Stanford University (Stanford, California)

Description: During this program, Clayborne Carson, editor of Martin Luther King, Jr.’s papers, considered what would come of King’s legacy. Carson notes that in his time, King was a controversial figure and that King himself would likely be have been surprised on how lauded he is. Carson argued that there would not be a holiday in his honor if not for (a) the actions of Rosa Parks, et al., and (b) that he was assassinated before he could continue to say more provocative and controversial things authorities do not like to hear. Carson noted the meaning of King’s life was contested while he was alive, and will continue to be contested long after his death.

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_514-w37kp7vs1r

2011

Screen Shot 2019-01-20 at 9.29.22 PM.png
Clayborne Carson, American Experience

Series: American Experience

Episode: Freedom Riders

Contributing Organization: WGBH (Boston, Massachusetts)

Description: Explore four raw interviews with Clayborne Carson, a professor of history at Stanford University, and director of the Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute.

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_15-qz22b8vs2hfixitt


About the AAPB:

The AAPB is a national effort to preserve at-risk public media and provide a central web portal for access to the programming that public stations and producers have created over the past 70 years. To date, over 90,000 items of television and radio programming contributed by more than 100 public media organizations and archives across the United States have been digitized, and the Archive aims to grow by up to 25,000 additional hours per year. The entire collection is available for research on location at WGBH and the Library, and currently, more than 37,000 programs are available in the AAPB’s Online Reading Room at americanarchive.org to anyone in the United States.

Donate to the AAPB here! http://americanarchive.org/donate


Curated by Ryn Marchese, AAPB Engagement and Use Manager

#InnovationMonday: Dr. Michael DeBakey and Heart Surgery

InnovationMonday.png
Want to help make this interview searchable and accessible online? While listening to Dr. DeBakey’s interview, audiences can edit the grammatical errors made in the computer-generated transcript at http://fixitplus.americanarchive.org/transcripts/cpb-aacip_17-73bzmhcc!

Produced by Louisiana Public Broadcasting (LPB), this episode of the series “Louisiana Legends” (1982) features the first part of an interview with Dr. Michael DeBakey, a native of Lake Charles, LA who was a preeminent surgeon whose innovations revolutionized heart surgery. During his interview, Dr. DeBakey discusses his father’s immigration to Lake Charles from Lebanon, how he became interested in the heart, the impact of Dr. Alton Ochsner on his career, and his interactions with President Richard Nixon, President John F. Kennedy, and President Lyndon B. Johnson.

“Louisiana Legends” is a talk show hosted by Gus Weill conducting in-depth conversations with Louisiana cultural icons. This series has been digitized and preserved in the American Archive of Public Broadcasting (AAPB) and the public can help make this interview searchable and accessible through the Transcribe to Digitize Challenge!

How does it work? The AAPB has created computer-generated transcripts for each radio and television program in the archive. Stations like LPB are engaging the public to help correct puncutation or misspelled words to make the program available online. These programs are then searchable by keywords and timestamps much like this interview with James Baldwin (WGBH, 1963) – http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_15-0v89g5gf5r.

You can start editing here http://fixitplus.americanarchive.org/transcripts/cpb-aacip_17-73bzmhcc.

Or watch the full interview at http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_17-73bzmhcc.

To learn how the Transcribe to Digitize Challenge is providing FREE digitization to AAPB’s participating organizations, visit https://americanarchivepb.wordpress.com/2018/10/22/aapbs-transcribe-to-digitize-challenge-with-george-blood/.

Thank you!

National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) Conference Resources

Available Online: 35,000+ Educational Video and Audio Resources and Primary Sources

The American Archive of Public Broadcasting (AAPB) recently met with K-12 educators, administrators, and teachers-in-training at the annual National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) Conference, a melding of the minds to help advocate and build capacity for high-quality social studies through leadership, services, and support.

As a collaboration between the Library of Congress and WGBH Educational Foundation, the AAPB provides an online archive, open and available to the public, of historic public radio and television programs from across the nation, spanning public broadcasting’s 70+ year history. From local and regional to national productions, the AAPB allows the public to access 36,000 (and growing) programs and original materials, from local news and documentaries to talk shows and raw interviews, and more all available at americanarchive.org!

To learn more about the AAPB, watch this informational video with example clips at https://vimeo.com/108272934.


For easier access and navigation, below is a deeper dive into AAPB’s resources:

LocalContent

The AAPB provides online access to users anywhere in the United States with a wide range of historic public television and radio programs that were submitted for digitization by more than 120 stations and archives from across the country. More than 36,000 programs are available online for research, educational and informational purposes, spanning public broadcasting’s 70+ year history. The entire collection is available for research on location at WGBH and the Library of Congress.

*Start with AAPB’s Road Trip Special Collection at http://americanarchive.org/special_collections/aapb-road-trip!

Check out our participating organizations at http://americanarchive.org/participating-orgs.


primary.png

Because of the geographical breadth of the material, students can use the collection to help uncover ways that national historical events played out on the local scene. The long chronological reach from the late 1940s to the present provides researchers with previously inaccessible primary source material to document change over time.


specialcollections-e1544117261781.png

Some notable collections are featured on the Special Collections page with finding aids that include information such as the scope and content of the collection, provenance and background information about its creator and source, recommended search strategies, and related resources. Collections include:

Raw interviews –

Screen Shot 2018-12-06 at 12.34.25 PM.png1964 (American Experience)
The Abolitionists (American Experience)
Jubilee Singers (American Experience)
Freedom Riders (American Experience)
The Murder of Emmett Till (American Experience)
Reconstruction (American Experience)
Africans in America (WGBH)

American Masters (WNET)
Ken Burn’s The Civil War (American Documentaries, Inc.)

Early educational broadcasting –

National Association of Educational Broadcasters Programs
National Educational Television Collection

Locally and nationally distributed programs and documentaries –

Center for Asian American Media
Firing Line
Georgia Gazette (GPB)
Oklahoma Educational Television Authority (OETA) News and Cultural Programming
PBS NewsHour
Say Brother (WGBH)
Vision Maker Media Documentaries
Woman (WNED)

Direct link to our Special Collections: http://americanarchive.org/special_collections


AAPB staff and guest curators create exhibits of selected programs and recordings that focus on themes, topics, and events of cultural and historical significance. Primary and secondary sources contextualize a curatedexhibit1-e1544117844344.pngdiversity of perspectives concerning the exhibit’s focus and as a result, AAPB exhibits often illuminate how public broadcasting stations and producers have covered topics such as the Watergate hearings, climate change, protesting in America, civil rights, and more!

Direct link to our Curated Exhibits: http://americanarchive.org/exhibits


Screen Shot 2018-12-06 at 1.56.50 PM.png

Contact Ryn Marchese, AAPB’s Engagement and Use Manager, to inquire about bringing these materials into your classroom: ryn_marchese@wgbh.org!

And feel free to share our resource with your local school, public and academic librarians! We’ve created a AAPB Library Communications Kit with details on how to describe the AAPB on website/resource guides and embed our player and harvest metadata from our catalog. We’ve also included a link to our webinar with the Boston Library Consortium on the “Accessibility of AAPB in Academic Libraries,” most of which will be applicable to the public librarian community.

For information about the AAPB that you can print for your classroom, email to fellow teachers, or post about online, feel free to use our Informational Flyer!


Most recommended content during NCSS?

Based on our conversations with teachers, below are a few programs we most recommended during the conference!

  1. PBS NewsHour Special Collection – The PBS NewsHour Collection includes more than 8,000 episodes of PBS NewsHour’s predecessor programs from October 1975 to December 2007 covering local and national conversations.
  2. “Gavel-to-Gavel”: The Watergate Scandal and Public Television Curated Exhibit – Here you will find guides to each episode of the public hearings that were digitized, links to transcripts, and highlights to peruse. To help identify people in the videos, the Cast of Characters page includes photos and titles for the important figures in the hearings. The Watergate Scandal, 1972-1974 page gives an explanation of the who, what, when, where, and why of Watergate to help guide you through the coverage. If you would like a more in depth essay on the significant role that Watergate played in the history of public broadcasting, please click on the Watergate and Public Broadcasting link.
  3. Field Trip Series from Main Public Broadcasting – Field Trip is a series of short educational documentaries that explore Maine’s history, culture, and agriculture from fish hatcheries to how low/high tides work — there’s so much to explore!
  4. Local Content – Search our participating stations for local content!

– – – –

The American Archive of Public Broadcasting (AAPB) is a collaboration between the Library of Congress and WGBH Educational Foundation in Boston that preserves and makes accessible significant public radio and television programs before they are lost to posterity. The AAPB collection includes more than 50,000 recorded hours comprising over 90,000 digitized and born-digital programs, and original materials dating back to the late 1940s, and is growing!

Written by Ryn Marchese, AAPB Engagement and Use Manager

Screen Shot 2018-12-06 at 2.02.50 PM.png

@amarchivepub

Remembering George H.W. Bush through Public Broadcasting

Today the nation lays to rest George Herbert Walker Bush, America’s 41st president who lived a long life dedicated to public service until his death at the age of 94. The American Archive of Public Broadcasting (AAPB) is honored to have preserved for modern audiences several historic public television and radio programs featuring or discussing President Bush, providing the American public the opportunity to learn more about his remarkable career in moving images and sound.

Below is a curated selection of programs with, or related to, George H.W. Bush beginning with his role as CIA Director, then on to his presidential campaigns, moderated debates, and the local reactions to his impact as a leading politician. All programs are available online thanks to the listed contributing stations.

1976

The CIA and the Intelligence Community from the Hoover Institution Library and Archives, Stanford University

In this episode of Commonwealth Club of California, George H.W. Bush discussed the responsibilities of the director of central intelligence (DCI), the role of the CIA, and the central importance of national security. He also talked about secrecy, accountability, and having faith in the strength and effectiveness of our democratic institutions.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_514-2j6833np4c

1977Screen Shot 2018-12-03 at 12.38.18 PM.png

George Bush in Boston from 10 O’Clock News

As a former CIA director, George H. W. Bush, spoke on national security and foreign affairs. In regards to relations with South American countries, Bush explained his belief that one should not use 1977 morals to pass judgment on events that happened in the past. He denied allegations that the CIA used the African Swine Fever Virus in Cuba to “destabilize”. Also denied that he ever authorized any use of chemical or biological warfare agents. He touched briefly on his potential candidacy for presidency.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_15-5t3fx73z3d

1979

Screen Shot 2018-12-03 at 3.10.58 PM.png

– George Bush Profile; George Bush for President from The MacNeil/Lehrer Report

The main topic of this episode was George H.W. Bush’s candidacy for president of the United States. The guests included Bush’s three campaign leaders Peter Teeley, David Keene, and James Baker, as well as George H.W. Bush.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_507-db7vm43k4v

Presidential Hopeful George H.W. Bush from Iowa Public Television
Iowa Press interviewed George H.W. Bush, a relatively unknown candidiate at the time and his strategy to leverage Iowa toward his party.

1980Screen Shot 2018-12-05 at 9.59.19 AM.png

Debates with Six Republican Presidencial Candidates from Iowa Public Television

This presidential debate recorded by Iowa Public Television included panelists Rep. Phil Crane Of Illinois, Senate Minority Leader Howard Baker Of Tenn., John Connally Of Texas, Sen. Robert Dole Of Kansas, George H.W. Bush Of Texas, and Rep. John Anderson of Illinois.

Part 1 direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_37-83kwhj7b

Part 2 direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_37-569325t0

1984

Debate between Vice President George Bush and Geraldine Ferraro produced by The MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour, contributed by Iowa Public Television

 

This debate focused on Vice President Bush and vice presidential candidate Geraldine Ferraro on foreign and domestic affairs.

Part 1 direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_37-72b8h3np

Part 2 direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_37-19f4qw2s

1988

Screen Shot 2018-12-03 at 3.29.49 PM.png

– The Bush Record from The MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour

In the latter half of this episode, The MacNeil Lehrer NewsHour covered the political record of the new republican presidential nominee, George H.W. Bush.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_507-862b85443p

 

– A Firing Line Debate: Resolved: That George Bush and the Republican Party Are Better Able to Run the Country for the Next Four Years Than Michael Dukakis and the Democratic Party from Firing Line with William F. Buckley

Screen Shot 2018-12-03 at 3.16.48 PM.png

The television series Firing Line with William F. Buckley Jr. was a venue for debate and discussion on political, social, and philosophical issues with experts of the day. In this episode, Buckley hosted a panel to discuss Bush’s impact as president, over that of his opponent’s, Michael Dukakis.

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_514-4f1mg7gh5j

Screen Shot 2018-12-05 at 11.12.05 AM.png

Andrew Young and NAACP members criticize Bush from 10 O’Clock News

In this episode of WGBH’s 10 O’Clock News, Deborah Wang noted that many members of the Legal Defense Fund were skeptical of President George Bush’s commitment to civil rights; she added that civil rights advocates were worried about Bush making conservative appointments to the judiciary. Wang reported that there would be several openings in lower courts and a possible opening on the Supreme Court during Bush’s term in office.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_15-9ks6j45g

1989 – Inauguration YearScreen Shot 2018-12-05 at 9.13.20 AM.png

– The Week of the the 41st Presidencial Inauguration from NewsHour Productions

In this episode, essayist Roger Rosenblatt discussed George H.W. Bush’s inauguration and his role in Civil Rights.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_507-j678s4kf08

*Start at timecode 49:20

Screen Shot 2018-12-05 at 11.22.01 AM.png– What the Presidency Means for Business from Maryland Public Television

From the Wall Street Week series, this episode compared the monetary impact of Ronald Reagan’s presidency verses Bush’s. Guests included Reagan’s budget chief, a top Wall Street money man, and a leading invester of Europe.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_394-7957421w

Screen Shot 2018-12-05 at 11.27.08 AM1992

Speaking for Bush from Maryland Public Television

From this episode of Wall Street Week, Lynn M. Martin, United States Secretary of Labor under President George H.W. Bush, spoke on President Bush’s economic policies.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_394-28nck2pq

 

Written by Ryn Marchese, AAPB Engagement and Use Manager

30th Anniversary of National Coming Out Day

National Coming Out Day (NCOD) is held annually on October 11th as a reminder of the 1978 National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights. The March aimed to ban discrimination based on sexual orientation, and today marks the 30th anniversary of NCOD’s focus on the importance of coming out as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer (LGBTQ), or an ally.

As National Coming Out Day focuses on creating a world in which the LGBTQ community can live openly, below is a selection of public radio and television programs that have explored what ‘living openly’ has meant to both the straight and LGBTQ communities through the decades.

The Homosexual in Our Society (Parts 1 and 2) from Pacifica Radio Archives (1958)

Part 1 Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_28-3n20c4st80

This recording from 1958 is an early example of overt discussions around homosexuality. It features interviews that discuss the conflict of the society versus the individual, whether the root of homosexuality is a product of biology or environment, “flamboyant individuals”, and elimination of effeminate gestures that distinguish homosexuals versus educating public that these mannerisms are not significant.

Part 2 Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_28-tt4fn11944

In this portion of the program, the panelists discuss laws regarding homosexuals, civil rights of homosexuals, identification of homosexuals, gender identification in society, possible causes of sexual choice, i.e. heredity versus environmental causes, and how society can constructively deal with these issues.

Speeches from the Lesbian Feminist Dialogue Conference from New England Public Radio’s series World of Women (1972)

This recording includes selected proceedings from the Lesbian Feminist Dialogue Conference about the relationship of feminism and lesbianism, and the tensions between straight and lesbian feminists.

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_305-7634tvnx

Female Homosexuality from WNED’s Woman Series (1974)

This episode features a conversation with Barbara Love, co-author with Sydney Abbott of “Sappho was a Right on Woman: A Liberated View of Lesbianism.” At the time of this episode, Love served on the Board of Directors of the National Gay Task Force, on the faculty of the Psychology Department of The New School for Social Research, and a member of the Advisory Board of New York N.O.W.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_81-02q57484

Transexuality and Sports from The MacNeil/Lehrer Report (1976)Screen Shot 2018-10-11 at 6.53.58 PM.png

This episode features a discussion on transexuality and sports with guests such as Dr. Renee Richards, Dorothy Harris, Charles Ihlenfeld, Roberto Granato.

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_507-cc0tq5s22t

Homosexual Rights; Gay Rights from The MacNeil/Lehrer Report (1977)

This episode follows a vote that would soon take place in Dade County, Miami to repeal or leave as it is an ordinance banning discrimination against homosexuals in housing, employment and public accommodations.

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_507-qn5z60ct7w

Lesbe Friends from Pacifica Radio Archives’ The Lesbian Underground Episode (ca. 1978)

In this episode, the discussion focuses on the ‘lesbian underground’, or what it was like to be a lesbian before the feminist and gay liberation movement. Guests include the then Commissioner of the San Francisco Commission on the Status of Women, Commissioner for the Human Rights Commission in San Francisco, and a comedian. Lesbe Friends was introduced on KPFA in 1978 as a new program produced by the Lesbian Task Force of the San Francisco Commission on the Status of Women. It was broadcast on second and fourth Mondays of the month at noon.

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_28-zp3vt1h719

Gay Show: A Look at Gay Fathers from WYSO (1979)

This episode explores what it’s like parenting as a Gay father.

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_27-76f1vrdr

National March on Gay Rights from The MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour (1993)

Torie Osborn, the Executive Director of the National Gay & Lesbian Task Force discusses the (then) most recent march on Washington for gay and lesbian rights; calling for an end to the ban on homosexuals in the military and increased funding for AIDS research.

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_507-x34mk66501

The Other Side of the Closet: the Coming Out Crisis for the Straight Spouses and Families from WILL Public Radio’s Focus Program (2004)

Amity Pierce Buxton, Ph.D., then Director of Straight Spouse Network, dicusses some persective of straight spouses and families after other LGBTQ family members come out.

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_16-pv6b27q87n

Homeless LGBTQ Youth: Cause & Effect from Hoover Institution Library & Archives (2010)

This forum speaks with LGBTQ youth and specalists in LGBTQ youth programming about the circumstances surrounding the loss of home and family after coming out.

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_514-0z70v8b72k

Martha Nussbaum: Sexual Orientation and Constitutional Law at the Harvard Book Store by the WGBH Forum Network (2010)

In this lecture, professor of law and philosophy, Martha Nussbaum, discusses the status of gay rights in the context of constitutional law and her (then) new book. Nussbaum argues that ‘disgust’ has long been among the fundamental motivations of those who are fighting for legal discrimination against lesbian and gay citizens, and believes that the politics of disgust must be confronted directly, for it contradicts the basic principle of the equality of all citizens under the law.

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_15-g73707wv3s

The Gay Response from Wisconsin Public TelevisionScreen Shot 2018-10-11 at 7.24.35 PM.png

This show explores some of the responses of the gay community to discrimination, and speaks with members of the community about their coming out story.

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_29-150gb892

Teaching Sex Ed and Homosexuality from NewsNight Minnesota (1996)

This episode explores how Minnesotan teachers are approcahing LGBTQ sexual education.

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_77-27mph5n4

Written by Ryn Marchese, AAPB Engagement and Use Manager

 

 

 

Eric Saxon, Public Broadcasting Fellow at KOPN

blog_image_1_KOPN_transmitter
KOPN’s transmitter, located east of Columbia, MO

Greetings gentle reader, I’m Eric Saxon, a Masters of Information and Library Science student specializing in archives at the University of Missouri – Columbia, and part of the second cohort of the Public Broadcasting Preservation Fellowship (PBPF). This summer, I embarked on a deep tape diving expedition at the radio station, KOPN.

KOPN 89.5 FM, community radio from Columbia, Missouri, broadcasts to antennas throughout the central part of the state and via online at kopn.org. KOPN has transmitted information and music since 1973 AD. As part of the PBPF mission to record local histories across the nation, I set out to discover Columbia and KOPN as it existed in the first twenty or so years of the station, through a media format heretofore unfamiliar to me, the ¼ in. audio tape reel.

The idea was to give these audio reels new life through digital preservation, and, subsequently, new access points to the history of community radio in Columbia, MO in the era of the ¼ in. magnetic tape.

blog_image_2_reel
A ¼ in. magnetic audio tape reel

What I ended up recording is only a small piece of this history, but the audible trace there tells a story of a community radio station being born out of the progressive ethos of the 1960s, open to and actively exploring all available ideas during the 1970s, and incompletely mutating into new wave ideals of the 1980s. During the era of the magnetic tape, KOPN filled a void in mid-Missouri left by mainstream broadcast radio and television, serving across an intersection of race, class, gender, style, sexuality, attitude, and musical preference.

The collection is particularly strong in broadcasts that represent feminist discourse and practice of the time, and my predecessor (Rebecca Benson, PBPF Spring 2018 Fellow) had already begun work that focused on feminist community radio. Having inherited her excellent start to the project, I built upon the theme and expanded it to include live music broadcasts and a wide range of programming, all under the umbrella of feminist community radio.

To convey an idea of this breadth, some titles of the audio broadcasts I digitized include Betty Friedan in Columbia (1973); Don Cooper Live at KOPN (1973); Consciousness Across the Void (1973); Angela Davis in Columbia (1974); Political Gayness (1974); National Women’s Music Festival (1975); The End of “Alternative Radio” on WGTB (1976); Off Our Backs (1976); The Fabulish Winotones Live (1977); Numerology (1978); The Booty Band: Demo Tape (1978); Reasonably Polite New Wave (1981); Program on Lesbian Separatism (1981); DuChamp Live at the Blue Note (1981); Bella Azbug at MU (1984); Gloria Kaufman, “The Politics of Humor: A Feminist View” (1992);  City Council Meetings; and discussions by the Women’s Health Collective.

I transferred only a few reels from the 1990s to a digital format, and none from the 2000s. (By that time, the station had switched to digital machines.) However, a quick listen to KOPN today will tell you that the community values and open radio format there in the beginning continue to be the guiding forces of the station.

blog_image_3_DuChamp
Kansas City new wave band, DuChamp. Handmade collage on tape reel box.

The digitization process not only transferred content but also often recorded the unique physical characteristics of the tape and its interaction with the reel-to-reel tape machines, which, in the University of Missouri – Columbia KOPN Digitization Station’s case, are the Studer A807 (mono) and the Studer B67 (stereo). These were hooked up to a PC and a Mac desktop computer, respectively, where both utilized the audio editing software, Audacity. I could have removed some tape hiss, a sizzle of magnetic particles here and there, and other imperfections, but I left in all but the most egregious content obfuscators, not only to digitize as much as possible in the time allotted, but also as an aesthetic choice and to preserve the unique qualities of the tape medium itself.

blog_image_4_studer_mono
The Studer A807

Emancipating the tape reels from their media-specific obscurity required multiple other steps, with some reels needing more TLC and resuscitation than others. After vigilant cleaning of the machines between reels, this process might entail repairing splices that popped off during the recording process, adding leader tape to the heads and tails of reels, re-housing tapes with broken parts, periodic demagnetizing of the tape machines, untangling and re-spooling tape that had become curled and twisted, and baking/dehydrating tapes exhibiting “sticky-shed syndrome” where deteriorating binder material becomes unfixed in the tape path and gums up the machine’s moving parts. In addition to the more physical aspects of the project, there was also record creation for each reel, inventory production, metadata researched and added, checksum generation, audio file conversion, and ingest into the mothership servers at WGBH.

Although I worked independently, at every stage I had a network of experts and mentors to turn to when encountering an obstacle, from the immersion week of audiovisual preservation training in Boston to the final handoff of the files. Thanks go out to the amazing folks at WGBH and all involved in immersion week, including George Blood and Jackie Jay for introducing me to legacy A/V equipment, all my fellow Fellows, host mentor Jackie Casteel and everyone at KOPN, faculty mentor Dr. Sarah Buchanan and the scholars at MU’s Allen Institute, local mentor Jim Hone, and every one else involved in this far-reaching project.

Going forward, I’m excited to bring forth more untold and seldom heard stories from their various limbos, utilizing what I learned as a PBPF fellow to help make a more complete historical record that is inclusive of the entire spectrum of human experience.

blog_image_5_audiosetup_selfportrait
Minimal audio preservation setup: computer, reel-to-reel tape machine, human

Written by Eric Saxon, PBPF Summer 2018 Cohort

*******************

About PBPF

The Public Broadcasting Preservation Fellowship (PBPF), funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services, supports ten graduate student fellows at University of North Carolina, San Jose State University, Clayton State University, University of Missouri, and University of Oklahoma in digitizing at-risk materials at public media organizations around the country. Host sites include the Center for Asian American Media, Georgia Public Broadcasting, WUNC, the Oklahoma Educational Television Authority, and KOPN Community Radio. Contents digitized by the fellows will be preserved in the American Archive of Public Broadcasting. The grant also supports participating universities in developing long-term programs around audiovisual preservation and ongoing partnerships with their local public media stations.

For more updates on the Public Broadcasting Preservation Fellowship project, follow the project at pbpf.americanarchive.org and on Twitter at #aapbpf, and come back in a few months to check out the results of their work.

 

National Voter Registration Day

National Voter Registration Day, first observed in 2012, is a national holiday celebrating our democracy and serves as a reminder for citizens to register to vote. The act of registering to vote has sparked discussions across generations and political affiliations, as well as engaged movements for civil and human rights. Below is a selection of public radio and television programs in the American Archive of Public Broadcasting that document the sentiments of and historical contexts around the right to vote, or in some cases, the choice not to. These episodes may contain language which is no longer generally considered politically or socially appropriate.

1946

‘Voters Week Registration’ from WNYC

This recording documents an event at New York’s City Hall sponsored by the Independent Citizens Committee of the Arts and Sciences and Professions. Speakers encourage Voters Registration Week (Monday, Oct. 7 – Saturday, Oct. 12, 1946).

Speakers include Deputy Mayor Thomas J. Corcoran, speaking on behalf of Mayor O’Dwyer, and Broadway actors Gordon Heath and Adele Jerome. Followed a parade of Broadway actors. Followed by short announcement encouraging women to vote.

Listen: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_80-76f1w6kq

1949

‘Childrens Roundtable: Voting Rights and Responsibilities’ from WNYC

This radio recording features a panel discussion with young people on topics like voting obligation, voting age, ways that individuals can grow their knowledge (books, people, school), responsibilities of young citizens, and choosing the best citizens in their schools.

Listen: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_80-95j9m626

1975

‘Suffragist Florence H. Luscomb’ from WNED

This episode features a conversation with Florence Hope Luscomb, an American architect and woman suffrage activist in Massachusetts. She dedicated herself fully to activism in the women’s suffrage movement and talks about the conditions women faced that led to the historic Seneca Falls Convention in 1850 to discuss women’s rights, as well as the voting rights of women in the Wyoming territory.

 

Watch: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_81-09j3tzx6

1977

‘Universal Voter Registration’ from The MacNeil/Lehrer Report

This episode features a discussion on universal voter registration, the pros and cons as well as its political chances for survival. The guests are Richard Moe, Bill Frenzel, Marie Garber, Thomas Roeser.

From the transcript:

JIM LEHRER: … Candidate Jimmy Carter told the Democratic National Convention last July it’s time for universal voter registration. But now, nearly a year later, President Carte’s plan to accomplish it has run into problems. There was supposed to have been a vote in Congress this week on an administration proposal to allow people to register at the polling place on Election Day. But there will be no vote this week; it was postponed a few weeks because the proposal, thought to be in good shape with the support of the Democratic majority as well as some bipartisan support from the Republicans, is in trouble. Local election officials, Southern Democrats, Republicans and others have come down hard on the idea, claiming that it will be impossible to administer and will encourage vote fraud among other things.

Tonight, a look at that Election Day idea, the pros and the cons as well as its political chances for survival, first with one of the key architects of the Carter proposal, Richard Moe, Chief of Staff to Vice President Walter Mondale. The administration plan is patterned after a system used in the State of Minnesota, the home state of both Vice President Mondale and Mr. Moe. Mr. Moe in fact was the State Democratic Chairman there before joining the Mondale staff. Mr. Moe, what would this new system accomplish?

Watch: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_507-cc0tq5s206

1980

‘The Non-Voters’ from The MacNeil/Lehrer Report

The main topic of this episode is the Non-Voters. The guests are John Judis, Curtis Gans. Byline: Jim Lehrer, Charlayne Hunter-Gault.

From the transcript:

MacNEIL: Good evening. As Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan continue to slug away at each other, off in quiet rooms away from the noise and stink of the campaign, politicians are worried about getting Americans out to vote for anyone. In every election since 1960, although a larger number of Americans has voted, the percentage of those eligible doing so has declined. When Kennedy defeated Nixon in 1960, 62.8 percent of the electorate cast ballots. When Carter beat Ford in 1976, only 54.4 percent bothered to vote. In this year of rampant disenchantment with the candidates, voter turnout may reach a new low. Tonight, the Americans who will not vote and why.

Watch: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_507-j678s4kd00

 

1981

‘Voting Rights on Trial’ from The MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour

The main topic of this episode is Voting Rights on Trial. The guests are Henry Hyde, Don Edwards, Robert Brinson.

From the transcript:

MacNEIL: The curtain went up this week on what will probably be the hottest and most important civil rights issue facing this Congress. For the past two days, a House judiciary subcommittee has held hearings on whether to extend the 1965 voting rights act. The act was intended to end discrimination against blacks seeking to vote in the South. Among other things, it permanently forbids poll taxes and the use of literacy tests nationwide. It was extended later to protect Hispanics and other non- English-speaking minorities. Although key provisions of the act don’t expire until next year, bills have already been introduced to extend or amend it. Critics say it’s no longer needed, and represents unwarranted federal intrustion into local affairs. Supporters say it is still needed, and that failure to extend it will end the progress minorities have made. Tonight, the opening round in the voting rights battle of 1981. Charlayne Hunter-Gauh is in Washington.

 

Watch: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_507-7s7hq3sh1v

1992

‘Black Vote’ from WHUT

This episode of Evening Exchange features a conversation on the impact of the black vote nationally and locally in the 1992 election. Topics covered include voter registration, the increase in voters who are black, electing black leaders, and how candidates seek or don’t seek support from black voters.

Watch: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_293-21tdz2qh

2004

‘Hispanic Voter Project’ from WILL Illinois Public Media

This episode of Focus interviews Adam Segal of the Hispanic Voter Project Director, Washington Center for the Study of American Government at Johns Hopkins University.

Listen: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_16-9k45q4s026

 

Curated by Ryn Marchese, AAPB Engagement and Use Manager

Ben Gogel, Research Assistant on the NewsHour Digitization Project

IMG_4457.jpg

Over the last several months, I’ve worked as a Research Assistant at WGBH on the PBS NewsHour Digitization Project. This project involves taking the predecessor programs for the PBS NewsHour, including The MacNeil/Lehrer Report, The MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour and The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, and making them available to a wider audience through digitization, preservation, and online access. My specific responsibilities include reviewing the proxy files, or digital copies, of multiple NewsHour episodes and making sure they are presentable (no major audiovisual glitches, complete transcripts, subtitles are legible), and recording the information in an online spreadsheet. This may sound like a straightforward job, but working at WGBH taught me even straightforward jobs can have unpredictable aspects, and I learned a lot about adapting to new challenges and going outside my comfort zone.

Before working on this project, I attended a rigorous Archives Management program at Simmons University, learning about several archival processing practices, chief among them being More Product, Less Process (MPLP). The idea behind MPLP is that, in cases where large amounts of archival content needs to be preserved, the Archivist must focus on processing as many objects as possible. This approach served me well in several real-world internships, including two in different departments at WGBH. The first of these was in the Creative department during the summer of 2015, helping my co-workers not only track data but set up a Google Drive account so as to store it in a spreadsheet. I then parlayed this experience into my Simmons Archives Field Study capstone project in the WGBH Media Library and Archives (MLA). Throughout the winter of 2016, I reviewed and cataloged episodes of regional news magazines produced by the Wyoming PBS and Oregon Public Broadcasting. Between the academic training and real-world experience, I thought I could handle working on the NewsHour Digitization Project, but over time, I found out just how unprepared I was, in the best way possible.

While archives share general principles, every place and department I’ve worked at has its own unique, unpredictable challenges, and the same was true on this project as well. A typical day on the job involves watching NewsHour episodes in bits and pieces, making sure the videos were watchable and their accompanying materials (i.e. transcripts and subtitles) were present and accurate. Most of the time, review has been straightforward, and the clips themselves have occasionally been interesting looks at iconic figures from new perspectives: personal favorites include retrospectives on what would’ve been the 100th birthdays of Alfred Hitchcock and Walt Disney, for example. But there are times where I have been thrown for a loop and needed to adapt.

For clips without transcripts and/or subtitles, I had no choice but to watch them for longer time periods, paying close attention to the audio. This need for paying close attention goes both ways, and there were times during graphic reports (like 9/11 and Hurricane Katrina coverage) where I needed to take small breaks to keep from getting overwhelmed emotionally. Fortunately, my co-workers and supervisor, remembering me from my previous Archives internship, have been remarkably sympathetic and understanding, which helped alleviate this stress, among other worries. The friendly, open atmosphere also encouraged me to branch out and extend a helping hand to them, and new people at WGBH, in kind.

Throughout the summer months, the MLA had several interns join over the summer, and as a welcoming gesture, I sat down with each of them for lunch on their first days, and over the course of their time I offered practical advice whenever I could, most importantly to not rule anything out vis-à-vis future work opportunities. At the same time, I myself was a fresh addition to the audience at several MeetUps and SpeakEasys: one of each a month for promoting and socializing with people from different departments of WGBH. The MeetUps even have a whole minute set aside for the purpose of introducing yourself to strangers, a nice and well-appreciated touch. Between this mentorship and more socially conducive environment, I had a support network that helped me a great deal.

As a kid, two of the biggest things that scared me were thunderstorms and spicy foods, particularly buffalo chicken. I would always stay away from both of them at every possible opportunity, to preserve my anxiety and avoid any kind of discomfort. The last few months had their fair share of stormy heat waves and spicy hot wings, but as with archival work in general, uncomfortable situations can only be avoided for so long. In the end, I had to buck up and accept that summer storms could at least be tolerated, and it helps that my co-workers never treated it as a debilitating setback. As for the spicy foods, that I did have control over, and to set a positive example for the interns, I not only tried buffalo chicken, but also pulled pork covered in Jamaican jerk seasoning. To my surprise, neither one of those foods burned my mouth off or led to searing pain, and this growth can be directly attributed to both my at-work support group and my need/willingness to handle unforeseen archiving circumstances.

Being adaptable to unpredictable elements is the most valuable lesson I learned from this experience. On-the-nose food metaphors aside, my experience with the turbulence in both the clouds and video files forced me out of my comfort zone, but it was all in terms I could understand thanks to my years of real-world experience. In my goal of preserving and making accessible the NewsHour files, I persevered and made myself more accessible as well.

Written by Ben Gogel, https://www.linkedin.com/in/bengogel/

 

 

Riley Griffin, Public Broadcasting Preservation Fellow at GPB

Riley.png
When we toured WGBH, we took turns holding an Emmy Award trophy (Image: Riley Griffin, author, holding an Emmy Award)

Hi, everyone!  My name is Riley Griffin (xe/xir).  I am just now entering my second year of graduate school in Clayton State University’s Masters of Archival Studies program.  I am the second fellow, after Virginia Angles, to be a part of the American Archives of Public Broadcasting (AAPB) Public Broadcasting Preservation Fellowship (PBPF).  My part of the project focused on digitizing Georgia Public Broadcasting’s (GPB) Georgia Gazette under the incredibly trusting supervision of Ellen Reinhardt, Kathy Christensen, and Joshua Kitchens.  I was looking for summer opportunities when a chance at following a career path in my new-found love for preservation presented itself through the AAPBPBPF.  I was overjoyed by the scope of the fellowship, the organizations working with it, and the special collections it included.

Every fellowship starts with certain expectations only to end with different lessons and new perspectives.  At the start of my fellowship, I spent a lot of time comparing. There were a lot of things I was not expecting, my reactions being one of them.  As we visited Boston and learned about all the different types of digital media we could be working with I couldn’t help but begin to feel this sort of jealousy–wishing I could work with as many formats and topics as possible.

Of course, this hunger decreased to a low rumble as I became humbled by the Georgia Gazette materials.  I quickly realized I craved difficulty; so, I became grateful instead of jealous.  In training, we were prepared to scrub and scrub our machines clean, take precious time delicately fixing things, and balance everything to be just perfect.  However, my project was given a bit of grace by being a more modern collection. Digital Audio Tapes (DATs) are often considered one of the most fragile media formats. However, most of them were recorded at a decent quality from the 1990’s to the 2000’s, rewound to the beginning, and left alone and undisturbed in an air-conditioned radio station.  So, please forgive me when I am grateful that the worst of my worries is how many times I dropped the (very loose) pinch roller into the machine that day.

GPBDigStation.png
GPB Digitization Station (Image: Two desks with 2 computers, a DAT machine, cleaning materials, and various electronics everywhere)

The topics of everyone’s materials had me curious, too.  I was wondering what it was like to have video–as my project was only audio–and to have materials like oral histories to work with.  I quickly counted my blessings as I heard what my colleague was working on–images of war, tragedy, death, and disaster. I thanked GPB for having forward attitudes towards topics, reporters who were nearly-emotionless in comparison, and pert news reports.  I am a very sensitive soul and could imagine having to wait the tears out before being able to see what you’re working on. I also realized I was having a hard time with some of the Georgia Gazette material.  One thing I experience as an archivist who moves all over is major culture shock.  I think being an archivist is one of the best ways to learn about the place you have just moved to. But it also exposes you to things much quicker than you expect.

I’m from upstate New York, which has a different demographic and historical context; although I’m not unfamiliar with racism, being deeply embedded in Georgia’s racial history as I digitized GPB’s daily news was a new experience for me. I had moments of weeping at work as I listened to news reports about the Georgia General Assembly holding expensive special sessions in order to redistrict purely based on race, schoolchildren being prevented from going the schools they want as a result of segregation, and segregation’s long-term effects on Georgia school districts, which I still hear about today. Although I knew about these issues in the abstract, hearing them firsthand was very emotional for me and adding visuals might have been overwhelming.

I would be lying if I were to say I came away from this project without any further attachment to Georgia.  Although it has exposed me to some of the ugly parts I try to avoid in my daily life, it has also exposed me to so much more.  Even the drive to work showed me the oldest drive-in movie theater in the area that is still working.   I also got the opportunity to listen to all of the preparation and execution of the 1996 Olympics.  I am a huge fan of all things Olympics, so

DAT
Indeed, this was the “WORST Gazette ever” (Image: close-up of a DAT labelled “Maxell DAT; Gazette 01-20 95; WORST Gazette ever”)

this was a special treat for me. The Georgia Gazette has given me a sort of pseudo-pride of Georgia; every guest and topic on the show had a relation to Georgia.  Learning about popular historical figures like Blind Tom Wiggins or popular events like the National Grits Festival in Warwick gives me a great appreciation for where I live and the opportunities available to me here.  It has also given me a deeper and fuller appreciation for public broadcasting, something that had already been instilled in me.  In a time where everyone is flocking to Georgia for jobs, often displacing long-term Georgians, I remind myself that my brief time being here must be purposeful.  I hope to help make their history more accessible so that they can feel that true sense of pride they deserve.  With the Georgia Gazette, I hope I did just that–even if it was just a little bit.

 

Written by Riley Griffin, PBPF Summer 2018 Cohort

———

About PBPF

The Public Broadcasting Preservation Fellowship (PBPF), funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services, supports ten graduate student fellows at University of North Carolina, San Jose State University, Clayton State University, University of Missouri, and University of Oklahoma in digitizing at-risk materials at public media organizations around the country. Host sites include the Center for Asian American Media, Georgia Public Broadcasting, WUNC, the Oklahoma Educational Television Authority, and KOPN Community Radio. Contents digitized by the fellows will be preserved in the American Archive of Public Broadcasting. The grant also supports participating universities in developing long-term programs around audiovisual preservation and ongoing partnerships with their local public media stations.

For more updates on the Public Broadcasting Preservation Fellowship project, follow the project at pbpf.americanarchive.org and on Twitter at #aapbpf, and come back in a few months to check out the results of their work.