Commemorating Presidents’ Day through AAPB Programming

George Washington’s birthday, also known as Presidents’ Day, is a federal holiday held on the third Monday of February. The day honors presidents of the United States, past and present, and the American Archive of Public Broadcasting (AAPB) has preserved historic public radio and television programs that highlight the lives and legacies of America’s presidents.

From President Washington to President Trump, public broadcasting has captured and shared commentary on the contributions of those in America’s highest position. Below is a chronological selection of programs related to, or featuring, most of America’s 45 presidents. All programs are available in AAPB’s Online Reading Room at americanarchive.org thanks to AAPB’s contributing stations.

1789-1797 | George Washington

His Excellency George Washington (2004) produced by WILL Illinois Public Media (Urbana, Illinois) speaks with the Pulitzer-prize winning biographer Joseph J. Ellis on the life of America’s first president.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_16-000000084f

1797-1801 | John Adams

Produced by Rocky Mountain PBS (Denver, Colorado), an episode on Foreign Policy and John Adams (1987) details John Adams presidency and international relations.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_52-75r7szs2

1801-1809 | Thomas Jefferson

Interview with Karen Hughes White (1998), archivist and founder of the Afro-American Historical Association of Fauquier County, from WGBH‘s (Boston, Massachusetts) Africans in America.

Ms. White is interviewed about Thomas Jefferson as a man of his time and the owner of her slave ancestors.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_15-7m03x84j26

1809-1817 | James Madison

Produced by Hoover Institution Library & Archives, Stanford University (Stanford, California), this 2010 program explores Bob Barr: James Madison and the Original Federalists – Where Are They When We Need Them?:

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_514-z02z31pn0t

1817-1825 | James Monroe

Form 1961, Contemporary revolution in Latin America; United States and Latin America, part 1, a radio program produced by University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland), discusses the initial reaction of Latin America to the Monroe Doctrine.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_500-00003k7q

1825-1829 | John Quincy Adams

Elderly Care; Adams produced by WGBH (Boston, Massachusetts).

WGBH Journal reports on the birthplace of John Quincy Adams, home to two of America’s presidents — John Adams and his son, John Quincy Adams, in this episode of Elderly Care; Adams (1978) produced by WGBH (Boston, Massachusetts).

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_15-73pvmvcv

1829-1837 | Andrew Jackson

Andrew Jackson (1987) produced by Rocky Mountain PBS (Denver, Colorado) discusses the major differences of Andrew Jackson as compared to his predecessors.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_52-89280rcp

1837-1941 | Martin Van Buren

New York NOW‘s episode titled Caption Master #38 (2010) was produced by WMHT (Troy, New York) and visits the home of Martin Van Buren, and focuses on why Van Buren’s presidency was perhaps one of the most unsuccessful during his time.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_131-0966t2hw

‘New York NOW’ is New York State’s Emmy-nominated, in-depth public affairs program, featuring news, interviews and analysis from the Capitol. Each week, the program probes politicians, civil servants, journalists and others as they examine the impact of public policy on residents of the Empire State.

1845-1849 | James K. Polk

Landmarks of the Old Oregon County (1991) produced by Oregon Public Broadcasting (Portland, Oregon) examines the ramifications of James K. Polk’s decision to sign a bill making Oregon a territory.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_153-46d25bh4

1849-1850 | Zachary Taylor

Workshop in practical politics, The role of minority parties in American Politics (1954) produced by WNYC (New York, New York) looks at 1848, when the Free Soil party formed from the Liberty party and swung the election to Zachary Taylor.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_510-696zw19b2j

1850-1853 | Millard Fillmore

New York NOW’s Caption Master #45 (2010) produced by WMHT (Troy, New York) discussed Millard Fillmore as the last Whig president in the White House.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_131-98z8wm7

‘New York NOW’ is New York State’s Emmy-nominated, in-depth public affairs program, featuring news, interviews and analysis from the Capitol. Each week, the program probes politicians, civil servants, journalists and others as they examine the impact of public policy on residents of the Empire State.

1861-1865 | Abraham Lincoln

This programming includes a recorded lecture by Dr. Eric Foner on The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln, Slavery and the Rights of Black Americans; Not for Profit: Why Democracy Needs the Humanities (2010) produced by WUSF (Tampa, Florida).

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_304-3331zrwh

1869-1877 | Ulysses S. Grant

In the tumultuous years after the Civil War (1863-77), America grappled with how to rebuild itself, how to successfully bring the South back into the Union and how to bring former slaves into the life of the country. Among other things, Dr. Eric Foner talks about the election of Ulysses S. Grant in American Experience‘s Reconstruction: The Second Civil War ((c) 2004-2017), WGBH (Boston, Massachusetts).

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_15-qf8jd4qs46

1877-1881 | Rutherford B. Hayes

North Carolina People with host William Friday (2004) speaks with an historian Kenan, Professor of History from the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, from UNC-TV (Research Triangle Park, North Carolina).

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_129-bc3st7f19c

North Carolina People is a talk show hosted by William Friday. Each episode features an in-depth conversation with a person from or important to North Carolina.

1881| James Garfield

This 1987 episode from Iowa Press of Iowa Public Television (Johnston, Iowa)Presidential hopeful Richard Gephardt discusses Democratic nominations in the 1998 presidential election with an historical footnote to James Garfield’s jump from the House of Representatives to the White House in 1880.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_37-182jmb6n

1881-1885 | Chester A. Arthur

In this episode of Pantechnicon, political historians draw parallels to Chester Arthur who had become president on the death of President Garfield. Pantechnicon from WGBH (Boston, Massachusetts) is a nightly magazine featuring segments on issues, arts, and ideas in New England.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_15-032287k6

1885-1889 / 1893-1897 |Grover Cleveland

Chrysti The Wordsmith from KGLT (Bozeman, Montana) tells the public how the term ‘Baby Ruth’ originated with President Grover Cleveland.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_309-43nvx4j7

1889-1893 |Benjamin Harrison

This segment of Oklahoma Heritage Film on the Land Run from OETA (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) discusses the legal basis for opening the Oklahoma District, now called the Unassigned Lands put into effect in 1889 when the U.S. Congress and Illinois Representative William Springer amended the Indian Appropriations Bill to authorize Pres. Benjamin Harrison to proclaim the two-million-acre region open for settlement. This covers the land run for the unassigned land in Indian Territory, David Payne and his Boomers, the Chisholm Trail, and Cowboys. Native American life prior to the land run is covered and addressed.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_521-zk55d8pq3m

1897-1901 | William McKinley

This program focuses on songs that tell stories of historical interest from the turn of the 20th century. In 1966, the program discussed the assassination of William McKinley, produced by University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland).

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_500-mk658d16

1901-1909 |Theodore Roosevelt

From WMHT (Troy, New York), ‘New York NOW’ (2009) discusses the life and contributions of President Theodore Roosevelt.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_131-38w9gndg

1913-1921 |Woodrow Wilson

From Wisconsin College of the Air (1973), Wisconsin Public Radio (Madison, Wisconsin) discusses American history from 1876, including the The Progressive Movement including Woodrow Wilson.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_30-773tz9cc

1923-1929 |Calvin Coolidge

In this 1997 segment of People Near Here from Mountain Lake PBS (Plattsburgh, New York), “meet a fellow with one of the rarest and almost priceless collections of autographs to be found anywhere; from Abraham Lincoln to Dr. Seuss.” Including tips on how to collect famous signatures and how to spot the forgeries of famous presidents such as Calvin Coolidge.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_113-472v74k2

1929-1933 |Herbert Hoover

Assignment Iowa produced by Iowa Public Television (Johnston, Iowa) is a magazine featuring segments on a different aspect of Iowa culture and history each episode including this segment on the Hoover Library (1976).

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_37-322bvt3f

1933-1945 |Franklin D. Roosevelt

The television series Firing Line with William F. Buckley Jr. was a venue for debate and discussion on political, social, and philosophical issues with experts of the day. Guest Mr. Prichard was a “dazzlingly Bright Young Man” when he went to Washington in 1940; he never came to the prominence predicted for him because in 1949 he was convicted of vote fraud for stuffing a ballot box. Contributed by Hoover Institution Library & Archives, Stanford University (Stanford, California), this 1982 talks about the days he made it to Washington D.C. and worked for President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_514-r49g44jn80

1945-1953 |Harry S. Truman

Guests in this 2002 episode of Evening Exchanged from WHUT (Washington, District of Columbia) discuss Harry S. Truman’s involvement with the Civil Rights movement and the speech he gave at Howard University.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_293-tm71v5c08d

1953-1961 |Dwight D. Eisenhower

This 1961 from KUHT, contributed by the University of Houston (Houston, Texas), includes Dwight D. Eisenhower’s last news conference as President of the United States with reflections on his years as President, presidential term limits, and the incoming administration.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_513-dj58c9s83k

1961-1963 |John F. Kennedy

Contributed by Hoover Institution Library & Archives, Stanford University (Stanford, California) (2003), this recording includes a talk on the life and administration of President Kennedy.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_514-sq8qb9w46s

1963-1969 |Lyndon B. Johnson

From WYSO (Yellow Springs, Ohio) (1966), President Johnson spoke at the Montgomery County Fairgrounds in Dayton, Ohio about about how the youth will shape their ideals and philosophy. He voiced concern that willful violence or willful indifference can tear a country apart by slow eroding confidence and regard for each other, and suggested that the nation needed to give youth more than just a right to decent meaning not just give them an opportunity to declare against something but a chance to declare for something.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_27-v40js9hs79

1969-1974 |Richard M. Nixon

“Gavel-to-Gavel”: The Watergate Scandal and Public Curated Exhibit

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/exhibits/watergate

In February 1973, James Karayn, the president of the National Public Affairs Center for Television (NPACT), public broadcasting’s unit in Washington responsible for producing national news-related programming, had the daring idea of broadcasting the Senate Watergate hearings in full, or “gavel-to-gavel,” rebroadcasting each day’s complete proceedings in the evening for those unable to watch during the day. The result was one of the most popular series in public broadcasting history. Viewers were captivated by the memorable personalities behind the senators’ table, the stories—equal parts fantastical, banal, and horrifying—told by the witnesses before the Committee, and the revelations that threatened to force President Richard Nixon out of office. And through it all, they had the steady, balanced commentary of anchors Robert MacNeil and Jim Lehrer, who stowed their editorializing to allow viewers to come to their own conclusions.

This online exhibit presenting the evening rebroadcasts (as well as the subsequent broadcasts of the House Impeachment hearings) will allow contemporary viewers to experience the hearings as so many did in 1973, in full, “gavel-to-gavel.”

1974-1977 |Gerald R. Ford

In An Exclusive Interview with President Gerald Ford (1976) produced by New Mexico PBS discusses topics such as gun registries, increasing home ownership, Boston school bussing and court-ordered racial integration, Nuclear Test Ban Treaty with the Soviet Union, U.S. military preparedness, and the U.S. providing nuclear reactors to South Africa. The second half of the episode provides excerpts from President Ford’s recent speech. Contributed by PBS SoCaL (Costa Mesa, California).

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_221-94vhj11d

1977-1981 |James Carter

This 1977 episode of the The MacNeil/Lehrer Report features a discussion on Jimmy Carter’s Presidential Style with guests such as Helen Heller, Jim Black, Elizabeth Erfle, Mike Russi, John Cullen, Toni Nash, Delores Shannon, Barbara Bishop, Henry Szulinski, Terry Schmidt, Helen Williams, Jim Wesley. Contributed by National Records and Archives Administration(Washington, District of Columbia).

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_507-ks6j09ww93

1981-1989 |Ronald Reagan

Iowa Public Television (Johnston, Iowa) re-broadcast 1982 coverage of Ronald Regan’s address to the Iowa legislature.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_37-94vhj07f

1989-1993 | George H. W. Bush

Below is a curated selection of programs with, or related to, George H.W. Bush beginning with his role as CIA Director, then on to his presidential campaigns, moderated debates, and the local reactions to his impact as a leading politician. All programs are available online thanks to the listed contributing stations.

Direct link: https://americanarchivepb.wordpress.com/2018/12/05/remembering-george-h-w-bush-through-public-broadcasting/

1993-2001 |William J. Clinton

This 1987 interview with Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas from South Carolina ETV (Columbia, South Carolina), captures a moment when Clinton was in his fourth term as the state’s governor and was considering a run for the democratic nomination for president.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_41-881jxfq8

2001-2009 |George W. Bush

From The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer contributed by the NewsHour Productions(Washington, District of Columbia), this 2000 episode includes an interview from the campaign trail in North Carolina with Governor George W. Bush who discusses American political culture, Social Security, and his qualifications for President.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_507-rr1pg1jf90

2009-2017 |Barack Obama

From New Hampshire Public Radio (Concord, New Hampshire) in 2007, Illinois U.S. Sen. Barack Obama, candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination, took host and caller questions about his campaign and policy positions. Obama addressed criticisms about his lack of experience to be president, his plan to end the Iraq War while ensuring the region remains safe and stable; resolving the Israel/Palestine conflict, healthcare reform vs. universal healthcare, funding his clean energy plan, investing in scientific research, federal recognition for civil unions, and his readiness to combat Republican attacks should he be the Democratic nominee.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_503-q23qv3cs75

2017-present |Donald J. Trump

Contributed by Internet Archive (San Francisco, California), President Donald Trump delivers an address to a joint session of Congress, telecast from the House chamber in 2017.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_525-251fj2b742

American Archive of Public Broadcasting to Preserve Fifty Years of Sesame Street for Posterity

WGBH Educational Foundation and the Library of Congress will preserve and make accessible to the public historic and contemporary episodes of Sesame Street.

Photo credit: Sesame Workshop

BOSTON (February 14, 2019)As Sesame Street begins to mark its 50th anniversary, the American Archive of Public Broadcasting (AAPB), a collaboration between the Library of Congress and the WGBH Educational Foundation, has announced that Sesame Workshop has donated a collection of digitized episodes from the past 50 years of Sesame Street, to be preserved for posterity. Over the next year, nearly 4,500 episodes from the first 49 seasons of the iconic children’s television program will be incorporated into the AAPB’s extensive archive of public media from across the United States. The Sesame Street collection will be available to view on-site at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. and by appointment at WGBH in Boston.

Sesame Street changed the landscape of children’s media at a time when television was viewed as a ‘vast wasteland’ and transformed a medium that strongly appealed to children into a source for knowledge and social development for our youngest citizens,” said Sesame Street co-founder and AAPB Executive Advisory Council Member Lloyd Morrisett, Jr. “I am proud that we are entrusting the American Archive of Public Broadcasting with the task of preserving Sesame Street’s stories and characters for future generations.”

The Sesame Street preservation project comes on the heels of Sesame Workshop’s announcement last week detailing plans to celebrate Sesame Street’s 50th year of broadcast. Sesame Workshop is the nonprofit education organization behind Sesame Street, which has been teaching and inspiring children since its first episode aired on November 10, 1969. Sesame Street’s groundbreaking research-based methods, dedication to entertaining educational content and outreach to families in underserved communities established a legacy for educational television and for public media as a whole.

Sesame Street: 50th Anniversary Highlight Reel

Among the episodes preserved in the AAPB’s Sesame Street collection are indelible scenes like the touching “Farewell, Mr. Hooper,” in which Big Bird, the program’s guileless surrogate for curious children, learns about death and how to cope;  Ernie’s “Rubber Duckie, You’re the One,” which made it to the 16th spot on the Billboard top singles chart in 1970; Grover’s frantic back and forth in “Near/Far,” Cookie Monster’s turn as “Alistair Cookie,” the cookie and classics-obsessed host of Monsterpiece Theater; and Kermit the Frog’s hopeful tune, “It’s Not Easy Being Green,” which stressed self-acceptance.

“As a historian and academic, I can’t stress enough the importance of preserving groundbreaking media like Sesame Street, which was the first TV show to address big issues like poverty, family and the environment in a way that children could understand,” said Kathryn Ostrofsky, Ph.D. and author of the forthcoming book Sounding It Out: How Sesame Street Crafted American Culture. “Early episodes of Sesame Street provide a window into the pressing issues of the times, as well as changing views about education. The American Archive of Public Broadcasting’s Sesame Street collection is a critical resource for studying and understanding so many facets of these societal changes.”

The mission of the AAPB is to digitize, preserve and make accessible historic public media content from across the country, dating back to the early 1940s. Given its age, much of the original audio and video tape is fragile and deteriorating. The AAPB is in a race against time to ensure that future generations, researchers and the public will be able to access these programs for years to come.

“We’re honored that Sesame Workshop has entrusted the preservation of their decades of work to the American Archive of Public Broadcasting,” said Librarian of Congress Carla Hayden. “To this day, Sesame Street is a key part of our national educational, television and public broadcasting landscape. I hope that everyone whose lives were touched by Sesame Street will visit the Library and WGBH to experience this historic collection.”

Photo credit: Sesame Workshop

Now in its fifth year of service, the AAPB has preserved for posterity over 90,000 digitized and born-digital audio and video materials. Among the collections preserved are more than 8,000 episodes of the PBS NewsHour Collection, dating back to 1975; more than 1,300 programs and documentaries from National Educational Television, the predecessor to the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS); full “gavel-to-gavel” coverage of the Senate Watergate hearings; raw, unedited interviews from the landmark documentary Eyes on the Prize; raw, unedited interviews with eyewitnesses and historians recorded for American Experience documentaries including Stonewall Uprising, The Murder of Emmett Till, Freedom Riders, 1964, The Abolitionists and many others. The AAPB also works with scholars to publish curated exhibits and essays that provide historical and cultural context to the Archive’s content.


About the American Archive of Public Broadcasting

The American Archive of Public Broadcasting (AAPB) is a collaboration between the Library of Congress and the WGBH Educational Foundation to coordinate a national effort to preserve at-risk public media before its content is lost to posterity and provide a central web portal for access to the unique programming that public stations have aired over the past 70 years. To date, over 50,000 hours of television and radio programming contributed by more than 100 public media organizations and archives across the United States have been digitized for long-term preservation and access. The entire collection is available on location at WGBH and the Library of Congress, and more than 35,000 programs are available online at americanarchive.org. 

About WGBH

WGBH Boston is America’s preeminent public broadcaster and the largest producer of PBS content for TV and the Web, including MasterpieceAntiques Roadshow, Frontline, Nova, American Experience, ArthurPinkalicious & Peterrific, and more than a dozen other primetime, lifestyle and children’s series. WGBH’s television channels include WGBH 2, WGBX 44, and the digital channels World and Create. WGBH TV productions focusing on the region’s diverse community include Greater BostonBasic Black and High School Quiz Show. WGBH Radio serves listeners across New England with 89.7 WGBH, Boston’s Local NPR®; 99.5 WCRB Classical Radio Boston; and WCAI, the Cape and Islands NPR® Station. WGBH also is a major source of programs for public radio (among them, PRI’s The World®), a leader in educational multimedia (including PBS LearningMedia™, providing the nation’s educators with free, curriculum-based digital content), and a pioneer in technologies and services that make media accessible to deaf, hard of hearing, blind and visually impaired audiences. WGBH has been recognized with hundreds of honors: Emmys, Peabodys, duPont-Columbia Awards and Oscars. Find more information at wgbh.org.

About The Library of Congress

The Library of Congress is the world’s largest library, offering access to the creative record of the United States — and extensive materials from around the world — both on-site and online. It is the main research arm of the U.S. Congress and the home of the U.S. Copyright Office. Explore collections, reference services and other programs and plan a visit at loc.gov; access the official site for U.S. federal legislative information at congress.gov; and register creative works of authorship at copyright.gov.

A Retrospective on WGBH and Experimental Television, 1968-1970

This year, the WGBH Media Library and Archives (MLA), a participating station of the American Archive of Public Broadcasting (AAPB), has begun hosting quarterly archives screenings as part of the WGBH Insiders Screening Series. Last week’s screening, A Retrospective on WGBH and Experimental Television from 1968-1970, offered a unique look into WGBH’s role as one of the first public media stations to explore television as an artistic medium. Over 100 members and guests visited WGBH to view segments of WGBH’s experimental television, including What’s Happening, Mr. Silver?; Madness and Intuition, The Medium is the Medium, and Violence Sonata.

Panelists included:

• Fred Barzyk, the original producer of WGBH’s series New Television Workshop

• George Fifield, Founder and Director of Boston Cyberarts Inc.

• Aldo Tambellini, Multimedia artist who created work for WGBH/Public Broadcasting Laboratory’s 1969 production called The Medium is the Medium

The event was moderated by Ryn Marchese, Engagement and Use Manager for the American Archive of Public Broadcasting, and Peter Higgins, Archives Manager at WGBH Media Library and Archives. Digital Archives Manager Leah Weisse curated an exhibit of relevant production and promotional materials to provide context to the evening’s focus. AAPB and MLA thank Elizabeth Hagyard for her support and collaboration on the event, as well as other staff in events, legal, marketing, and engineering, and WGBH volunteers who helped make the night a success!

img_5401 (1)
Introductory slide for The Medium is the Medium (1969) displaying the six contributing artists. From left to right on stage: Peter Higgins, Ryn Marchese, Fred Barzyk, and George Fifield.

y6___nscwoftrbxkdjr9u0tnnu_a8kyufshmoyprjihlvtuy7j9yuxzrt4olsbpmz8o9s4my0tyojf5__4annodbaby14qk1vahgkugvk2j5-cccu1spqgk7we8rhqzql6gnqqpv2_a7c6rcremthdrrjqrwlx7qjknka5aw7eetrv9k2hfanvshnx
Aldo Tambellini speaks about his video art in The Medium is the Medium (1969).

img_5407 (1)
Digital Archives Manager Leah Weisse curated an exhibit of relevant production and promotional materials to provide context to the evening’s focus.

Event slide deck:

Original post from WGBH Media Library and Archives’ blog at https://wordpress.com/view/blog.openvault.wgbh.org.

Eric Saxon, Public Broadcasting Fellow at KOPN

blog_image_1_KOPN_transmitter
KOPN’s transmitter, located east of Columbia, MO

Greetings gentle reader, I’m Eric Saxon, a Masters of Information and Library Science student specializing in archives at the University of Missouri – Columbia, and part of the second cohort of the Public Broadcasting Preservation Fellowship (PBPF). This summer, I embarked on a deep tape diving expedition at the radio station, KOPN.

KOPN 89.5 FM, community radio from Columbia, Missouri, broadcasts to antennas throughout the central part of the state and via online at kopn.org. KOPN has transmitted information and music since 1973 AD. As part of the PBPF mission to record local histories across the nation, I set out to discover Columbia and KOPN as it existed in the first twenty or so years of the station, through a media format heretofore unfamiliar to me, the ¼ in. audio tape reel.

The idea was to give these audio reels new life through digital preservation, and, subsequently, new access points to the history of community radio in Columbia, MO in the era of the ¼ in. magnetic tape.

blog_image_2_reel
A ¼ in. magnetic audio tape reel

What I ended up recording is only a small piece of this history, but the audible trace there tells a story of a community radio station being born out of the progressive ethos of the 1960s, open to and actively exploring all available ideas during the 1970s, and incompletely mutating into new wave ideals of the 1980s. During the era of the magnetic tape, KOPN filled a void in mid-Missouri left by mainstream broadcast radio and television, serving across an intersection of race, class, gender, style, sexuality, attitude, and musical preference.

The collection is particularly strong in broadcasts that represent feminist discourse and practice of the time, and my predecessor (Rebecca Benson, PBPF Spring 2018 Fellow) had already begun work that focused on feminist community radio. Having inherited her excellent start to the project, I built upon the theme and expanded it to include live music broadcasts and a wide range of programming, all under the umbrella of feminist community radio.

To convey an idea of this breadth, some titles of the audio broadcasts I digitized include Betty Friedan in Columbia (1973); Don Cooper Live at KOPN (1973); Consciousness Across the Void (1973); Angela Davis in Columbia (1974); Political Gayness (1974); National Women’s Music Festival (1975); The End of “Alternative Radio” on WGTB (1976); Off Our Backs (1976); The Fabulish Winotones Live (1977); Numerology (1978); The Booty Band: Demo Tape (1978); Reasonably Polite New Wave (1981); Program on Lesbian Separatism (1981); DuChamp Live at the Blue Note (1981); Bella Azbug at MU (1984); Gloria Kaufman, “The Politics of Humor: A Feminist View” (1992);  City Council Meetings; and discussions by the Women’s Health Collective.

I transferred only a few reels from the 1990s to a digital format, and none from the 2000s. (By that time, the station had switched to digital machines.) However, a quick listen to KOPN today will tell you that the community values and open radio format there in the beginning continue to be the guiding forces of the station.

blog_image_3_DuChamp
Kansas City new wave band, DuChamp. Handmade collage on tape reel box.

The digitization process not only transferred content but also often recorded the unique physical characteristics of the tape and its interaction with the reel-to-reel tape machines, which, in the University of Missouri – Columbia KOPN Digitization Station’s case, are the Studer A807 (mono) and the Studer B67 (stereo). These were hooked up to a PC and a Mac desktop computer, respectively, where both utilized the audio editing software, Audacity. I could have removed some tape hiss, a sizzle of magnetic particles here and there, and other imperfections, but I left in all but the most egregious content obfuscators, not only to digitize as much as possible in the time allotted, but also as an aesthetic choice and to preserve the unique qualities of the tape medium itself.

blog_image_4_studer_mono
The Studer A807

Emancipating the tape reels from their media-specific obscurity required multiple other steps, with some reels needing more TLC and resuscitation than others. After vigilant cleaning of the machines between reels, this process might entail repairing splices that popped off during the recording process, adding leader tape to the heads and tails of reels, re-housing tapes with broken parts, periodic demagnetizing of the tape machines, untangling and re-spooling tape that had become curled and twisted, and baking/dehydrating tapes exhibiting “sticky-shed syndrome” where deteriorating binder material becomes unfixed in the tape path and gums up the machine’s moving parts. In addition to the more physical aspects of the project, there was also record creation for each reel, inventory production, metadata researched and added, checksum generation, audio file conversion, and ingest into the mothership servers at WGBH.

Although I worked independently, at every stage I had a network of experts and mentors to turn to when encountering an obstacle, from the immersion week of audiovisual preservation training in Boston to the final handoff of the files. Thanks go out to the amazing folks at WGBH and all involved in immersion week, including George Blood and Jackie Jay for introducing me to legacy A/V equipment, all my fellow Fellows, host mentor Jackie Casteel and everyone at KOPN, faculty mentor Dr. Sarah Buchanan and the scholars at MU’s Allen Institute, local mentor Jim Hone, and every one else involved in this far-reaching project.

Going forward, I’m excited to bring forth more untold and seldom heard stories from their various limbos, utilizing what I learned as a PBPF fellow to help make a more complete historical record that is inclusive of the entire spectrum of human experience.

blog_image_5_audiosetup_selfportrait
Minimal audio preservation setup: computer, reel-to-reel tape machine, human

Written by Eric Saxon, PBPF Summer 2018 Cohort

*******************

About PBPF

The Public Broadcasting Preservation Fellowship (PBPF), funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services, supports ten graduate student fellows at University of North Carolina, San Jose State University, Clayton State University, University of Missouri, and University of Oklahoma in digitizing at-risk materials at public media organizations around the country. Host sites include the Center for Asian American Media, Georgia Public Broadcasting, WUNC, the Oklahoma Educational Television Authority, and KOPN Community Radio. Contents digitized by the fellows will be preserved in the American Archive of Public Broadcasting. The grant also supports participating universities in developing long-term programs around audiovisual preservation and ongoing partnerships with their local public media stations.

For more updates on the Public Broadcasting Preservation Fellowship project, follow the project at pbpf.americanarchive.org and on Twitter at #aapbpf, and come back in a few months to check out the results of their work.

 

World Teachers’ Day 2018

🍎

World Teachers’ Day is held annually on October 5th to commemorate the signing of the 1966 UNESCO/ILO Recommendation concerning the Status of Teachers. This Recommendation sets benchmarks regarding the rights and responsibilities of teachers and standards for their initial preparation and further education, recruitment, employment, and teaching and learning conditions.

As World Teachers’ Day aims to focus on appreciating, evaluating, and improving the educators of the world, public broadcasting has brought these concerns to the public for further consideration. Here is a brief selection of clips to recognize the ambition of teachers, as well as public broadcasting’s programming as a primary and secondary resource.

Educational Programs Available Online

National Educational Television Special Collection (1952-1972)

net_catalog.jpgThe National Educational Television (NET) Collection consists of more than 10,000 television programs from non-commercial TV stations and producers from 1952-1972 on public affairs, social issues, arts, culture, the humanities, science, and education. The collection includes public affairs documentaries and discussions covering the black freedom struggle, the Vietnam War, the Cuban Missile Crisis, and issues such as poverty, student activism, radicalism, privacy, the environment, the elderly, and welfare. The programs in this collection were created for television broadcast, as well as classroom and adult educational uses.

Search the collection: http://americanarchive.org/special_collections/net-catalog

School Desegregation from WGBH’s Say Brother Series (1974)

Screen Shot 2018-10-05 at 3.11.29 PM.png

This program focuses on school desegregation and the quality of education in Boston 1974. Discussion includes students, parents, and community activists held within Jeremiah E. Burke High School. First program of the 1974 season.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog?q=cpb-aacip%2F15-9gq6r236&utf8=%E2%9C%93&f%5Baccess_types%5D%5B%5D=online

Sex Bias in Education from WNED’s Women Series (1974)

 

 

This episode features a conversation with Judy Wenning and Phyllis AlRoy. Wenning was the former President of NY N.O.W and Coordinator of National NOW Women and Sports Task Force. She was a teacher and worked as a feminist therapist at NY City College and in private practice. AlRoy was a member of “Women on Words and Images,” a feminist consulting firm in Princeton, New Jersey, and is the co-author of “Dick and Jane As Victims.”

Direct Link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_81-37hqc39r

Denver Public School Prime Time Project from Rocky Mountain PBS (1981)

Screen Shot 2018-10-05 at 3.19.35 PM.png

This show is from a weekly series to create public awareness of the educational opportunities in the Denver Public Schools and to encourage the cooperative efforts of home and community to achieve excellence in education.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_52-91fj7068

Front Street Weekly: Public vs Private Schooling from Oregon Public Broadcasting (1984)

Screen Shot 2018-10-05 at 3.14.25 PM.png

In the choice between private and public, this episode focuses on why Oregon parents are choosing private over public school for their children in 1984.

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_153-07gqnmcc

Arkansas School for the Deaf from Arkansas Educational TV Network (1994)

Screen Shot 2018-10-05 at 10.23.12 AM.png

This documentary describes the courses and programs at the Arkansas School for the Deaf. The documentary is composed of interviews with school administrators and teachers, along with footage and photographs of students in classrooms, around campus, and at special events. Transcript included!

Direct link: http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_111-4298sn90

Primary and Secondary Resources in the Archive

The American Archive of Public Broadcasting (AAPB) contains more than 50,000 items of digitized public broadcasting programs and original materials. Over 35,000 items of these programs are available online and the importance of these news casts, raw interviews, documentaries, radio shows etc. serve as primary and secondary sources to American history, both on the local and national level.

Below is AAPB’s Informational Flyer available for download. This flyer gives an overview of the AAPB, its collection, and accessibility to students and teachers.

With over 35,000 items of public radio and television programs from 120 particiation stations, AAPB’s collection captures historical moments across chronological and geographic spectrums. The AAPB staff and guest researchers have curated Exhibits that include coverage of the Watergate hearing, civil rights movements, climate change, and more!

The AAPB has also organized Special Collections that highlight valuable series within collections. These include raw interviews from Eyes on the Prize, Ken Burns’ Civil War Series, and American Expereience documentaries. Often times, only minutes of these interviews make it into the final cut of programs. On the AAPB, the public has access to interviews from start to finish. For example, from the Eyes on the Prize Special Collection, the public can watch Rosa Parks give her account of history between the production crew’s cues and director’s coaching off-screen.

We hope you enjoy and can make use of these resources!

AAPB Informational Flyer

The AAPB Informational Flyer is available for download and contains an overview of the American Archive of Public Broadcasting, its collection, and accessibility in the classroom. Feel free to share with students, teachers, and colleagues!

Download here: AAPB_Informational_Flyer.pdf

AAPB_Informational_Flyer_Page_1AAPB_Informational_Flyer_Page_2

Curated Exhibits

American Archive of Public Broadcasting staff and guest curators have created exhibits of selected recordings that focus on themes, topics, and events of cultural and historical significance. In these exhibits, curators contextualize digitized primary and secondary source public television and radio materials. Each curated set of selected recordings present a diversity of perspectives concerning the exhibit’s focus. As a result, AAPB exhibits often illuminate how public broadcasting stations and producers have covered the exhibit’s theme.

curatedexhibits.png

Special Collections

Some notable collections are featured here in Special Collections. Each Special Collection finding aid provides detailed information about the content, such as its creator, recommended search strategies, and related resources. These are unedited interviews from programs that often only include minutes of the original interviews.

Screen Shot 2018-10-05 at 3.23.14 PM.png

Written by Ryn Marchese, AAPB Engagement and Use Manager

Steve Wilcer, Public Broadcasting Preservation Fellow at WUNC

Wilcer profile photo.jpg
I was thrilled to experience the myriads of different programs from WUNC over the years and be able to directly contribute to their preservation for the future.

Hello! My name is Steve Wilcer. I coordinated with WGBH and WUNC Radio in Chapel Hill, North Carolina as a member of the second cohort of fellows for the AAPB Public Broadcast Preservation Fellowship. I am currently working towards a Master of Science in Library Science at the University of North Carolina and plan to graduate next spring. Prior to my time in North Carolina, I studied musicology at the Ohio State University and was exposed to a wide variety of media formats and materials, ranging from microfiche to medieval manuscripts. I developed a strong passion for libraries and archives through these experiences, which led me to pursue a second master’s degree in library science.

Learning as I work

As someone who just entered North Carolina last fall, my work with WUNC Radio offered me a unique opportunity to learn about the area and its people. Public radio provides a versatile platform for education, entertainment, and awareness programming. I was thrilled to experience the myriads of different programs from WUNC over the years and be able to directly contribute to their preservation for the future. During my portion of the fellowship, I was able to digitize approximately forty assets, with most of them being digital audio tapes. I also continued to develop the cataloging and documentation for WUNC, allowing me to experience the digitization and preservation process from a more holistic standpoint.

One particularly informative component of the fellowship for me was the North Carolina Voices special collection: This collection contains materials from two of WUNC’s special program series: Understanding Poverty and Civil War. Understanding Poverty offered a wide assortment of programs and features on various financial and social issues in the state, as well as how North Carolina has developed over the last several decades. The Civil War series contained family stories of ancestors that lived during or served in the United States Civil War. Both series provided me a valuable, more tangible insight into the people of Chapel Hill and North Carolina as I listened to their stories and firsthand experiences. I also had the artistic opportunity to design our thumbnail image for the special collection as it appears on the AAPB.

Building up foundations

Being the second UNC fellow for the project, I was fortunate that our digitization station was already set up and operational. Getting the station to work was a significant challenge for the first round of the fellowship, but fortunately, the station operated without any issues for me, thanks to all the hard work from everyone involved. One of my duties in the project was to build upon the records for the digitized materials and ensure that WUNC’s personal records were uniform and easy to understand. I frequently consulted with WUNC’s Keith Weston to confirm dates, names, and programming details. In some cases, newly rediscovered items forced us to reevaluate how we defined a particular series or piece of programming, and I would edit our records as necessary.

UNC SILS Digitization station

While the fellowship focuses on digitization, cataloging the physical DATs and cassettes I handled proved to be equally important. Without proper labeling and documentation, a given asset could be unknowingly re-recorded and cost extra time. In addition to our digital master table of records, I was responsible for labeling the physical objects and their cases with the newly-determined local identifiers for WUNC. With these markings, the cases can be quickly scanned for items that are yet to be digitized, which will make future digitization projects easier for WUNC.

I developed a strong personal connection to these items as I cataloged and marked them. Each DAT and cassette had a story to tell, and it was up to me to piece together their metadata and see that they were digitized and made publicly accessible so others could listen to them. Being one of the first North Carolina-based organizations to be included in the AAPB was very exciting for me, as our work here was not only a foundation for WUNC and its archives, but for North Carolina as a state, as well. Materials like the WUNC 1953 sign-on event reminded me how long ago some of these recordings were made, and how many more there may still be at WUNC, waiting to be digitized and heard once more.

Overall, the fellowship has been a wonderful opportunity for me. It allowed me to not only develop my abilities handling audio materials and digital records, but also provide me a way to learn about the area and its people and history. I am incredibly grateful for all the support and effort from everyone that allowed this project to be realized: my advisor, Dr. Helen Tibbo, Erica Titkemeyer from the Southern Folklife collection for her technical assistance, Dena Schultz, our first fellow for the project, Keith Weston at WUNC, and all the staff at WGBH for their supervision, planning, and feedback.

Written by Steve Wilcer, PBPF Summer 2018 Cohort

———

About PBPF

The Public Broadcasting Preservation Fellowship (PBPF), funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services, supports ten graduate student fellows at University of North Carolina, San Jose State University, Clayton State University, University of Missouri, and University of Oklahoma in digitizing at-risk materials at public media organizations around the country. Host sites include the Center for Asian American Media, Georgia Public Broadcasting, WUNC, the Oklahoma Educational Television Authority, and KOPN Community Radio. Contents digitized by the fellows will be preserved in the American Archive of Public Broadcasting. The grant also supports participating universities in developing long-term programs around audiovisual preservation and ongoing partnerships with their local public media stations.

For more updates on the Public Broadcasting Preservation Fellowship project, follow the project at pbpf.americanarchive.org and on Twitter at #aapbpf, and come back in a few months to check out the results of their work.

 

Riley Griffin, Public Broadcasting Preservation Fellow at GPB

Riley.png
When we toured WGBH, we took turns holding an Emmy Award trophy (Image: Riley Griffin, author, holding an Emmy Award)

Hi, everyone!  My name is Riley Griffin (xe/xir).  I am just now entering my second year of graduate school in Clayton State University’s Masters of Archival Studies program.  I am the second fellow, after Virginia Angles, to be a part of the American Archives of Public Broadcasting (AAPB) Public Broadcasting Preservation Fellowship (PBPF).  My part of the project focused on digitizing Georgia Public Broadcasting’s (GPB) Georgia Gazette under the incredibly trusting supervision of Ellen Reinhardt, Kathy Christensen, and Joshua Kitchens.  I was looking for summer opportunities when a chance at following a career path in my new-found love for preservation presented itself through the AAPBPBPF.  I was overjoyed by the scope of the fellowship, the organizations working with it, and the special collections it included.

Every fellowship starts with certain expectations only to end with different lessons and new perspectives.  At the start of my fellowship, I spent a lot of time comparing. There were a lot of things I was not expecting, my reactions being one of them.  As we visited Boston and learned about all the different types of digital media we could be working with I couldn’t help but begin to feel this sort of jealousy–wishing I could work with as many formats and topics as possible.

Of course, this hunger decreased to a low rumble as I became humbled by the Georgia Gazette materials.  I quickly realized I craved difficulty; so, I became grateful instead of jealous.  In training, we were prepared to scrub and scrub our machines clean, take precious time delicately fixing things, and balance everything to be just perfect.  However, my project was given a bit of grace by being a more modern collection. Digital Audio Tapes (DATs) are often considered one of the most fragile media formats. However, most of them were recorded at a decent quality from the 1990’s to the 2000’s, rewound to the beginning, and left alone and undisturbed in an air-conditioned radio station.  So, please forgive me when I am grateful that the worst of my worries is how many times I dropped the (very loose) pinch roller into the machine that day.

GPBDigStation.png
GPB Digitization Station (Image: Two desks with 2 computers, a DAT machine, cleaning materials, and various electronics everywhere)

The topics of everyone’s materials had me curious, too.  I was wondering what it was like to have video–as my project was only audio–and to have materials like oral histories to work with.  I quickly counted my blessings as I heard what my colleague was working on–images of war, tragedy, death, and disaster. I thanked GPB for having forward attitudes towards topics, reporters who were nearly-emotionless in comparison, and pert news reports.  I am a very sensitive soul and could imagine having to wait the tears out before being able to see what you’re working on. I also realized I was having a hard time with some of the Georgia Gazette material.  One thing I experience as an archivist who moves all over is major culture shock.  I think being an archivist is one of the best ways to learn about the place you have just moved to. But it also exposes you to things much quicker than you expect.

I’m from upstate New York, which has a different demographic and historical context; although I’m not unfamiliar with racism, being deeply embedded in Georgia’s racial history as I digitized GPB’s daily news was a new experience for me. I had moments of weeping at work as I listened to news reports about the Georgia General Assembly holding expensive special sessions in order to redistrict purely based on race, schoolchildren being prevented from going the schools they want as a result of segregation, and segregation’s long-term effects on Georgia school districts, which I still hear about today. Although I knew about these issues in the abstract, hearing them firsthand was very emotional for me and adding visuals might have been overwhelming.

I would be lying if I were to say I came away from this project without any further attachment to Georgia.  Although it has exposed me to some of the ugly parts I try to avoid in my daily life, it has also exposed me to so much more.  Even the drive to work showed me the oldest drive-in movie theater in the area that is still working.   I also got the opportunity to listen to all of the preparation and execution of the 1996 Olympics.  I am a huge fan of all things Olympics, so

DAT
Indeed, this was the “WORST Gazette ever” (Image: close-up of a DAT labelled “Maxell DAT; Gazette 01-20 95; WORST Gazette ever”)

this was a special treat for me. The Georgia Gazette has given me a sort of pseudo-pride of Georgia; every guest and topic on the show had a relation to Georgia.  Learning about popular historical figures like Blind Tom Wiggins or popular events like the National Grits Festival in Warwick gives me a great appreciation for where I live and the opportunities available to me here.  It has also given me a deeper and fuller appreciation for public broadcasting, something that had already been instilled in me.  In a time where everyone is flocking to Georgia for jobs, often displacing long-term Georgians, I remind myself that my brief time being here must be purposeful.  I hope to help make their history more accessible so that they can feel that true sense of pride they deserve.  With the Georgia Gazette, I hope I did just that–even if it was just a little bit.

 

Written by Riley Griffin, PBPF Summer 2018 Cohort

———

About PBPF

The Public Broadcasting Preservation Fellowship (PBPF), funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services, supports ten graduate student fellows at University of North Carolina, San Jose State University, Clayton State University, University of Missouri, and University of Oklahoma in digitizing at-risk materials at public media organizations around the country. Host sites include the Center for Asian American Media, Georgia Public Broadcasting, WUNC, the Oklahoma Educational Television Authority, and KOPN Community Radio. Contents digitized by the fellows will be preserved in the American Archive of Public Broadcasting. The grant also supports participating universities in developing long-term programs around audiovisual preservation and ongoing partnerships with their local public media stations.

For more updates on the Public Broadcasting Preservation Fellowship project, follow the project at pbpf.americanarchive.org and on Twitter at #aapbpf, and come back in a few months to check out the results of their work.

American Archive of Public Broadcasting’s Advisory Committees to Guide Public Media Preservation

Education Advisory Committee, Scholar Advisory Committee and Stations and Producers Advisory Committee to Guide American Archive of Public Broadcasting’s Preservation Efforts

The American Archive of Public Broadcasting (AAPB) has announced three new advisory committees: The Education Advisory Committee (EduAC), the Scholar Advisory Committee (SAC) and the Stations and Producers Advisory Committee (SPAC). These three groups of public media advocates and experts in their fields will grow the AAPB’s reach and engagement and will provide feedback on how to improve the AAPB’s operations as relates to each group’s unique needs. This initiative is made possible with funding from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, The AAPB, a collaboration between Boston public media station WGBH and the Library of Congress, has been working to digitize and preserve more than 50,000 hours of broadcasts and previously inaccessible programs from public radio and public television’s more than 70-year legacy. A list of Committee members is available at http://americanarchive.org/about-the-american-archive/advisory-committees.

 “The AAPB is a vast resource and a unique catalogue of our nation’s history through the lens of public media and local perspectives. The feedback we receive from our new committees is crucial to making the AAPB as accessible and user-friendly as possible to key communities across the country,” said Karen Cariani, David O. Ives Executive Director of the WGBH Media Library and Archives and WGBH’s Project Director for the AAPB. “We look forward to collaborating with scholars, educators, stations and producers and expanding the reach of the AAPB.”

The SAC, comprised of scholars from universities, academic and cultural institutions and non-profits from across the U.S., will collaborate on developing ways to engage with scholars and students, discuss how the AAPB can better support research, provide feedback on the AAPB’s website usability and accessibility, advise on future collections significant for preservation and assist in outreach across their academic networks. SAC scholars represent expertise in a range of fields, including public history, media, cinema, library and information science, journalism, science and American studies. The AAPB’s audio and video content from public media stations is a rich resource for research across these topics and more. The SAC’s input will help the AAPB make the use of these resources more accessible for researchers.

A group of education professionals comprise the EduAC. This committee will help the AAPB assess how it can better grow the usage of public media materials in k-12 and community college classrooms. EduAC will advise the AAPB on how to build better and/or integrate with existing online educational tools, to engage with k-12 students and better support educators in the field, and will act as advocates for public media preservation in their networks and communities.

The SPAC will bring together members of the public media community to gather input on how the AAPB can help stations preserve public media and make their historic content more accessible. The SPAC will offer feedback on the archiving services most needed by public media stations and identify significant collections and content for preservation.

The AAPB is a national effort to preserve at-risk public media and provide a central web portal for access to the programming that public stations and producers have created over the past 70 years. To date, over 50,000 hours of television and radio programming contributed by more than 100 public media organizations and archives across the United States have been digitized, and the Archive aims to grow by up to 25,000 additional hours per year. The entire collection is available for research on location at WGBH and the Library, and currently more than 30,000 programs are available in the AAPB’s Online Reading Room at americanarchive.org to anyone in the United States.

– – –

About the American Archive of Public Broadcasting

The American Archive of Public Broadcasting (AAPB) is a collaboration between the Library of Congress and the WGBH Educational Foundation to coordinate a national effort to preserve at-risk public media before its content is lost to posterity and provide a central web portal for access to the unique programming that public stations have aired over the past 70 years. To date, over 50,000 hours of television and radio programming contributed by more than 100 public media organizations and archives across the United States have been digitized for long-term preservation and access. The entire collection is available on location at WGBH and the Library of Congress, and more than 30,000 programs are available online at americanarchive.org.

About WGBH

WGBH Boston is America’s preeminent public broadcaster and the largest producer of PBS content for TV and the Web, including Frontline, Nova, American Experience, Masterpiece, Antiques Roadshow, Arthur, and more than a dozen other prime-time, lifestyle, and children’s series. WGBH also is a major supplier of programming for public radio and a partner with Public Radio International (PRI). As a leader in educational multimedia for the classroom, WGBH supplies content to PBS LearningMedia, a national broadband service for teachers and students. WGBH also is a pioneer in technologies and services that make media accessible to those with hearing or visual impairments. WGBH has been recognized with hundreds of honors: Emmys, Peabodys, duPont-Columbia Awards and Oscars. Find more information at www.wgbh.org.

About the Library of Congress

The Library of Congress is the world’s largest library, offering access to the creative record of the United States – and extensive materials from around the world – both on site and online. It is the main research arm of the U.S. Congress and the home of the U.S. Copyright Office.  Explore collections, reference services and other programs and plan a visit at loc.gov, access the official site for U.S. federal legislative information at congress.gov and register creative works of authorship at copyright.gov.

About The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation

Founded in 1969, The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation endeavors to strengthen, promote, and, where necessary, defend the contributions of the humanities and the arts to human flourishing and to the well-being of diverse and democratic societies by supporting exemplary institutions of higher education and culture as they renew and provide access to an invaluable heritage of ambitious, path-breaking work. Additional information is available at mellon.org.